Дата публикации: 2017-10-11 14:14
Perhaps even more so than in preceding periods, art was an instrument of dynastic expression in this great age of empires. Spurred by royal patronage, the arts flourished under the Ottomans and Safavids. Ottoman military incursions into Iran in the later fifteenth century, and throughout the sixteenth century, led to the appropriation of artists, works of art, and artistic ideas. Ottoman decorative arts and the arts of the book were thereby enriched by the repertoire of floral and vegetal motifs first developed in fifteenth-century Iran, generally referred to as the international Timurid style.
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Today the clarity, intensity and definition of these masterworks of Irish illumination (and of others such as the Book of Armagh , the Stowe Missal , and the Book of the Dun Cow ) may come as a surprise to those who associate the term Celtic with the vague, the misty and the mystical, as the result of a concept which had its roots in the beginnings of the Romantic revival in the mid-eighteenth century and its exhaustion in the Celtic twilight movement of the 6895s.
The Los Angeles Ardabil and its pendant in London are exceptional works of art, not only on account of their unique design and well-preserved colors but also because each is signed and dated. Inscribed just above the signature and date is a Persian couplet from a ghazal , or ode, by the renowned fourteenth-century lyrical poet Hafiz, whose words heighten our appreciation even today:
In later periods miniatures were increasingly created as single works to be included in albums called muraqqa , rather than illustrated books. This allowed non-royal collectors to afford a representative sample of works from different styles and periods.
699 Psalter of St Caimin
MS . Library of the Franciscan House of Celtic Studies and Historical Research, Killiney, County Dublin
Also supposedly created by Perigrinus the author of the Stowe Missal, in the late 8th century, it contains eleven pages featuring excerpts from the Gospel of St John. The portrait of St John is framed by the symbol of an eagle with outstretched wings, while panels of knotwork designs and key patterns are arranged on either side.
Now in the Kungliga Bibliotek, Stockholm, the Codex Aureus (similar in style to the Vespasian Psalter) was written at Canterbury in about 755, and is noted for its dazzling use of gold text. The unknown chief scribe was clearly a master of Byzantine art but a relative novice at Celtic artwork, although one of his assistants was more skilled at traditional Celtic design.
The most important and enduring symbol of the empire 696 s return to prosperity under Shah c Abbas was his capital, the new city of Isfahan, with the great Maydan-i Shah , or Royal Square, as its focal point. In addition to the mosques, public buildings, and palaces constructed around the Maydan, numerous other edifices were erected in Isfahan and its environs to house and serve this cosmopolitan capital 696 s growing population, which included significant Jewish and Armenian communities.
This Insular Majuscule font has been designed for use with graphic and editing software, keeping in mind the capabilities of a graphic artist or a graphic designer. In conjunction with the other writing tools available in this CD, it works wonderfully with applications like: Adobe Illustrator, InDesign, PageMaker, Macromedia Freehand, Corel Draw and many other professional programs.
Some word processing applications and other lesser programs don&rsquo t reproduce well the kerning of the fonts or simply don&rsquo t have kerning capabilities irregular spacing of characters may occur when using this font with such software programs.